Developing appropriate illustrations
Counseling for behavior change
Improving health provider skill
reminder materials


Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs)


TIPs is a formative research technique developed by the Manoff Group and used in Behavior-Centered ProgrammingSM. TIPs allows program planners to pretest the actual practices that a program will promote. Families (or health workers, etc.) try out proposed practices and their experiences and opinions are used in designing a program. TIPs was first used in the late 1970s and early 1980s in nutrition programming. Using the TIPs methodology with families, program planners learned how to improve instructions for preparing homemade oral rehydration solution and ways to improve young child feeding in numerous countries. Over the past decade TIPs has been applied to other public health issues, including HIV/AIDS, school health, infectious disease control, maternal health and family planning. Using TIPs gives program planners an in-depth understanding of families' preferences and capabilities, as well as the obstacles they face in improving their health and their motivations in trying new behaviors and practices. TIPs focuses on behavior, what people do, rather than on knowledge, or what people know or believe. Trials are the best way to gauge the acceptability of a practice or product and the best ways of promoting it.

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